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What is backlog refinement?

Backlog refinement in Miro

Backlog refinement: A foundation for Agile work

The product backlog is a key component in Agile methodology, serving as a dynamic, organized list of work items that the team needs to address. These items, often referred to as user stories, are ordered based on their priority to deliver value to the end-user.

In simple terms, the product backlog can be seen as the project's 'to-do list.' It's a live document that contains everything that could be done in the project to meet the desired outcome. This includes new features, changes to existing features, bug fixes, infrastructure changes, or other activities.

What is backlog refinement?

Backlog refinement, also known as backlog grooming, involves revising the product backlog to ensure that the items on the list are appropriate, detailed, and prioritized according to their value to the project or customer. It is an ongoing process rather than a one-time event, regularly happening throughout the life of the project.

During refinement, user stories may be added, removed, re-arranged, or broken down into smaller, manageable parts. The aim is to ensure that the backlog is always ready with well-understood and executable items for the next few sprints.

The importance of an effective backlog

An effective product backlog is crucial to the success of any Agile project. It serves as a communication tool between the team and the stakeholders, offering a clear understanding of what work needs to be done and why.

Here's why an effective backlog is critical:


The product backlog helps in prioritizing work based on business or customer value. This means that the most important tasks are completed first, ensuring that the product developed is most valuable to the customers.


A well-organized backlog ensures transparency. All stakeholders have a clear view of what is to be done, reducing ambiguity and confusion.


The product backlog is dynamic and continuously updated. As the market or customer requirements change, the backlog adapts, ensuring that the team is always working on the most relevant tasks.


The backlog is a vital tool for planning future sprints and releases. By having a well-maintained backlog, the team can forecast when work might be done and help manage stakeholder expectations.

In essence, an effective and well-managed backlog is the foundation of any Agile project. It aligns the team towards a common goal and provides direction and context for all the work they undertake.

The purpose and benefits of backlog refinement

The purpose of backlog refinement is multifold. It aims to make the product backlog manageable, understandable, and ready for future sprints.

The benefits of this process include:

Increased understanding

It provides an opportunity for the development team and the product owner to discuss and understand each user story's scope and requirements.

Better estimations

By refining backlog items, the team can more accurately estimate the time and effort required to complete each user story.

Efficient sprint planning

It reduces the amount of time needed during sprint planning as a lot of the discussions around what is to be done and the complexity of the tasks have already been addressed.

Consistent flow of work

Regular refinement ensures that the team always has a ready supply of items to work on, which maintains the project's pace and reduces downtime.

Participants in backlog refinement

Effective backlog refinement is a collaborative effort that involves the active participation of key members of the Agile team. This typically includes the Product Owner, the Development Team, and the Scrum Master, each playing an essential role in the process.

The role of the Product Owner in backlog refinement

The Product Owner is primarily responsible for the product backlog, including defining, prioritizing, and refining its items. They make decisions about what needs to be done, ensuring that the items on the backlog align with the project's goals and deliver the highest value to the customer.

During the refinement process, the Product Owner is expected to clearly communicate the vision and requirements of each backlog item. They must also be open to feedback and discussions to clarify any ambiguity and ensure the team fully understands each item's scope and importance.

The role of the development team in backlog refinement

The Development Team is responsible for executing the items on the backlog. During the refinement process, they collaborate with the Product Owner to gain a clear understanding of the requirements and scope of each item.

The team provides estimates on the effort and complexity of each backlog item, contributing their expertise to break down larger items into smaller, manageable tasks. They also ask questions and seek clarifications on any ambiguities, ensuring they are well-prepared to start work when the sprint begins.

The role of the Scrum Master in backlog refinement

While the Scrum Master does not have a direct role in prioritizing or defining backlog items, they play a facilitator's role during the refinement process. The Scrum Master ensures that the process runs smoothly, fostering effective communication between the Product Owner and the Development Team.

They may guide discussions, help resolve conflicts, and ensure that the team adheres to the time-boxed refinement sessions. The Scrum Master also helps the team understand and implement good practices for refinement, including effective techniques for estimation and splitting user stories.

The backlog refinement process

The backlog refinement process is an ongoing collaborative activity in Agile development, involving a series of steps to keep the product backlog in an organized, understandable, and actionable state.

Frequency and timing of backlog refinement sessions

Backlog refinement is typically an ongoing process that occurs throughout the project lifecycle. However, formal backlog refinement sessions are usually conducted once per sprint. The exact frequency can be adjusted based on the team's needs and the project's complexity.

These sessions should be time-boxed to maintain efficiency and focus. Many teams allocate around 5-10% of the total sprint time for backlog refinement activities. For instance, in a two-week sprint, this would translate to about 2-4 hours in total.

Steps involved in backlog refinement

Although the specifics may vary between different Agile teams, the backlog refinement process generally includes the following steps:

Reviewing the backlog

The Product Owner and the Development Team review the existing backlog items. This could involve revisiting the user stories, business requirements, or technical tasks that are on the list.

Discussion and clarification

Each item on the backlog is discussed in detail. The Product Owner explains the item's requirements and importance, and the Development Team asks questions or seeks clarifications.

Prioritizing the backlog

The Product Owner, with input from the Development Team and possibly stakeholders, prioritizes the items based on their value to the project or customer.

Estimating effort

The Development Team estimates the effort required for each item. This is usually done using a unit of measurement agreed upon by the team, such as story points or hours.

Splitting large items

Large or complex items, often known as epics, are broken down into smaller, more manageable user stories. This makes them easier to understand, estimate, and implement.

Updating the backlog

Based on the discussions, clarifications, and estimates, the backlog is updated. This may involve adding, deleting, or modifying items, and reordering them based on their priority.

Common techniques used in backlog refinement

Various techniques can help make the backlog refinement process more efficient and effective. These may include:

User story mapping

This technique helps visualize the user's journey and prioritize user stories based on their role in this journey.

DEEP analysis

DEEP stands for Detailed appropriately, Estimated, Emergent, and Prioritized, which are the characteristics a good product backlog should have.

MoSCoW method

This method categorizes items into Must have, Should have, Could have, and Won't have, aiding in the prioritization process.

Planning poker

A gamified estimation technique where each team member "bets" on how much effort each item will take, leading to a consensus-based estimate.

Tips for effective backlog refinement

To make the most of the process of backlog refinement, here are some tips to keep in mind:

Ensure collaboration and communication

Effective backlog refinement is a collaborative process that requires open and clear communication between the Product Owner, the Development Team, and the Scrum Master.

  • Encourage open discussions: Everyone should feel comfortable asking questions, offering suggestions, and seeking clarifications.

  • Establish a common language: Ensure everyone understands the terminology and concepts being used to avoid confusion.

Prioritizing and estimating backlog items

Prioritization and estimation are crucial aspects of backlog refinement.

  • Prioritize based on value: The highest priority should be given to items that deliver the most value to the customer or the project.

  • Be realistic with estimates: It's essential to be as accurate as possible when estimating the effort required for each backlog item. Use an estimation method that works best for your team, such as playing a round of planning poker or using this Fibonacci scale template.

Dealing with large or complex backlog items

Large or complex backlog items, often known as 'epics,' can be challenging to deal with in refinement sessions.

  • Break it down: Large items should be broken down into smaller, manageable tasks. This not only makes them easier to understand and estimate but also makes implementation more manageable.

  • Don't be afraid to defer: If an item is too complex to be fully understood in one session, it's okay to defer it to a future session when more information or analysis might be available.

Regularly review and update the backlog

The product backlog is a living document that needs regular attention.

  • Regular refinement sessions: Conduct backlog refinement sessions regularly, ideally once per sprint, to keep the backlog up-to-date and ready for upcoming sprints.

  • Adapt to changes: Agile is all about embracing change. The backlog should be flexible to adapt to new information, changes in business requirements, or customer feedback.

Remember, an effective backlog refinement process is essential to keep your Agile project running smoothly and efficiently. It not only prepares the team for the next sprint but also ensures that the work being done aligns with the project goals and delivers the most value to the customers.

Use Miro for the backlog refinement process

With a range of estimation tools, online sticky notes, and Jira integrations, Miro makes managing the backlog refinement process easier than ever. Teams can collaborate in real-time regardless of their location, making refinement sessions more efficient and engaging.

Sign up for Miro for free to get started.

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